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THE TWO BROTHERS                         123

becomes a thief to his country." In fact, they realised the full truth of
what Mencius said in that whole passage:

Goodness of heart alone is not enough to govern a country, and
laws alone without good men cannot be properly enforced. . . .
Therefore it is said that to reach a high position., one must go up a
hill, and to go down a valley, one must follow the stream. In the
governance of a nation, it would be foolhardy indeed to depart from
the principles of the ancient kings. Therefore only the kind-hearted
man should be appointed to a high office; for an unkind man to
assume a high position is merely to reveal his wickedness to the
world. When a ruler does not follow the ancient tradition, the
ministers upset the law, the court has no respect for truth, and work-
jnen no longer follow the squares and compasses; when educated
people violate their own principles, and the common people violate
the laws, it will be sheer good luck if such a country can continue to
exist. Therefore, I say, it is not a national calamity when the city walls
are not fortified and the army is not properly equipped; it is not a
national calamity when the farms are not cultivated and there is no
financial reserve; but when educated people lose their manners and
morals and the common people are not educated, then destroyers of
society will arise and the country will soon perish.

That night Su Tungpo wrote two poems which reveal his state of

"The western wind fills the boat sails
And my parting tears drop into the Ying.
I know it is useless to delay the parting;
Let's make the best of the remaining hours.
Three times have we been parted in this life,
But this parting is the hardest of all
You are so much like our deceased father,
Quiet, reticent, but inwardly strong.
To have few words is evidence of the blessed man,
And inward possession [J(cti~sheJ(\ gives wisdom and strength.
Among all the scholars of the land,
You were the first and quickest to resign.
Alas, I have been like a crazy man,
Walking straight toward an unfenced well,
Like a drunkard who totters and tumbles,
But luckily wakes before the fatal fall"

In the second poem he writes: